Sagwa E, Mantel-Teeuwisse A.K., Ruswa N, Musasa J.P., Pal S., Dhliwayo P., van Wyk B. The burden of adverse events during treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Namibia. Southern Med Review (2012) 5;1: 6-13
Objective: Namibia faces a dual burden of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). In 2010, HIV prevalence was 18.8%, the TB case notification rate was 634 cases per 100,000 population and the TB/HIV co-infection rate was 58%. There were 372 cases of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) in 2009. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, profile and outcome of adverse events (AEs) associated with treatment of DR-TB and to explore possible influences of HIV disease on the occurrence of adverse events.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. After ethical approval, data were collected from treatment records of all patients treated for DR-TB at the study facility between January 2008 and February 2010 using a structured data collection form.
Results: A total of 141 adverse events of varying severity were experienced in 90% (53/59) of patients.The TB/HIV co-infection rate was 53% (n=31). The prevalence of gastrointestinal tract adverse events (abdominal pains, constipation, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting) was 64%, tinnitus 45%, joint pain 28%and decreased hearing 25%. Abdominal pains, rash, nausea, decreased hearing and joint pain were more common in HIV infected than in HIV uninfected patients.
Conclusions: Adverse events of varying severity are common during treatment of DR-TB, particularly in the intensive phase of therapy. Some adverse events were more prevalent in DR-TB patients co-infected with HIV. The study concludes that the characteristics and risk factors of serious adverse events should be further examined.